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Physiology without borders
Alberto Juan Dorta Contreras
55 lecturas


Anselma Betancourt Pulsan, Sara Terrado Quevedo Terrado Quevedo, Caridad Romero Barrientos Romero Barrientos, Elbis Perez Villalón Perez Villalón
222 lecturas
Human Neuroimmune Response Against Angiostrongylus Cantonensis

Introduction: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes human angiostrongyliasis; its main clinical manifestation is eosinophilic meningitis. It was reported in Cuba for the first time in America.

Objective: To review the main immunological findings about the human neuroimmune response against this parasite.

Materials and methods: This paper is based on a review of the papers mainly from Cuban authors published in the last 10 years about the human neuroimmune response against this helmint. This information becomes more relevant after the introduction of the African giant snail Lissachatina fulica in Cuba in 2014.

Results: The humoral immune response is based on the immunoglobulin intrathecal synthesis. When the third-stage larvae goes to the central nervous system at the first lumbar puncture there are no major immunoglobulin synthesis.  One week later an immune intrathecal response is done by a two class major immunoglobulin class mainly IgG+ IgA. Intrathecal activation of complement is evident of intrathecal synthesis of major immunoglobulins during this disease. The activation of complement system components in cerebrospinal fluid is relevant to the understanding of this tropical disease, which is emerging in the Western hemisphere. Intrathecal synthesis of at least one of the major immunoglobulins and a wide spectrum of patterns may be observed. Although intrathecal synthesis of C3c and IgE is always present, C4 intrathecal synthesis does not occur in every patient. The diversity of intrathecal synthesis and activation of the different complement pathways enables their division into three variant groups. In each one could be find the activation of one or several complement pathways including the participation of MBL, MASP-2 and ficolins as part of the lectin pathway complement activation.

Conclusion: The neuroimmune response against Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is an example of the host-parasite interaction.

David Gómez-Pérez, Christian Meijides-Mejías Meijides-Mejías, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
161 lecturas
Insulin In The Carotid Sinus Increases Suprahepatic And Arterial Glucose Levels

Objective: Considering that insulin is a clue hormone in glucose homeostasis, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of this hormone infused into the isolated carotid sinus (ICS), on suprahepatic and arterial glucose levels. Methods: All procedures were carried out in accordance with the United States National Institutes of Health. Ten male Wistar rats 280-300 g anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (5 mg /100 g i.p.) after 12 h fasting were randomly divided into control and experimental groups.  Saline (100µL) or insulin (15 mIU/rat in 100 μL saline) were injected into the ICS. Blood was collected from catheters inserted in the suprahepatic vein (SHV), starting in the jugular vein and into the femoral artery (FA) were placed. Glucose levels were determined at -10 and -5 min before saline or insulin were injected in the ICS; and 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 min after the above injection.  Results:Insulin injection significantly increased glucose levels in the SHV from 128.8 ± 5.2 mg/dL to 207.4 ± 10.6 mg/dL (p = 0.00005), while in the FA they increase from 123.4 ± 6.7 mg/dL to 199.8 ± 9.6 mg/dL(p = 0.0008) at 40 min after insulin injection. Control group with saline did not show significant changes (p = 0.97 in FA) and (p = 0.34 in SHV). The comparison between both groups was significant on arterial (p = 0.007) and venous (p = 0.003) blood glucose levels. Conclusion: As other studies report overactivation of the carotid bodies and sympathetic activity increase after insulin injections in the carotid artery, we assume that insulin in the carotid bodies (CBs)) activates hepatic glycogenolysis to increase blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia).

Mónica Lemus Vidal, José Luis Cadenas Freixas, Héctor R. Tejeda Chávez, Edgar U. Mejía Chávez, Julián E. Martínez Sánchez, Sergio A. Montero Villegas, Claudia Z. Valle Rubio, José A. Maturano Melgoza, Sergio A. Montero Cruz, Elena Roces Dorronsoro
764 lecturas
Alejandro Ramos-Robledo, Christian Meijides Mejías, José Alejandro Rodríguez Pérez, Alejandro Mirabal Viel, Vanessa Pérez del Vallín, Alberto Juan Dorta Contreras
208 lecturas
Comparison Of Methods For The Quantification Of Albumin In Serum And Total Protein In Cerebrospinal Fluid

Introduction: Albumin is the protein that marks the passage of cerebrospinal fluid proteins into the serum.

Materials and methods: Serum albumin was quantified by bromocresol green dye technique and by using the modified microalbuminuria method and for protein in cerebrospinal fluid, the pyrogallol molybdate red complex technique and the bromocresol green method were used.

Results: Compared methods in serum, the modified ELISA method had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 80% and the cut-off point was less than or equal to 58 g / L. In both fluids the bromocresol green method had a sensitivity of 72.7%, specificity of 60% and the cut-off point was greater than 34g / L. The areas under the ROC curves of the two methods did not show significant differences for p = 0.074. In the methods for protein in cerebrospinal fluid the pyrogallol molybdate red complex had a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 90.5 and the cut-off point was less than or equal to 960mg / L and the bromocresol green method had a sensitivity of 66.7, a specificity of 85.7 and a cut-off point less than or equal to 700mg / L. The comparison between the ROC curves of the two methods studied was significant with p=0.138.

Conclusions: The modified ELISA method is better than the bromocresol green method for protein in terms of specificity and sensitivity and in methods for quantifying serum albumin both methods do not show significant differences and have lower specificity and sensitivity than methods for quantifying protein in cerebrospinal fluid.

Vanessa Pérez-del-Vallìn, José Alejandro Rodríguez-Pérez, Alejandro Mirabal-Viel, Christian Meijides-Mejías, Jairo Lumpuy-Castillo, William Castillo-González, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
310 lecturas
Use Of The ROC Curves For The Evaluation Of The Guillain-Barré Diagnostic Methods

Introduction:The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves are widely used to compare methods in search of greater specificity and sensitivity in which they are selected.

Materials and methods: For the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré, different methods were used, such as the clinical one, which is performed in routine or basic clinical laboratories, radial immunodiffusion and neurophysiological, which are not mutually exclusive. The total number of patients studied was 347 divided into two groups: a probable group formed by 31 patients and not probable formed by 316 patients. For the quantification of albumin by radial immunodiffusion in serum and cerebrospinal fluid NOR and LC Partigen® plates were used by Siemens (Marburg, Germany) and by agglutination with modified particles of HELFA latex (CIE, BioCubaFarma, Havana).

Results: The Guillain-Barré Syndrome rapid diagnostic latex agglutination test showed little difference between the areas under the curve contrasted with the method considered as reference. As the other tests were incorporated into the diagnosis by latex agglutination, the area under the curve was increased. The area under the curve of the latex agglutination method was 0.742, showing that the technique of agglutination in albumin latex in cerebrospinal fluid does not replace the simple radial immunodiffusion for the immunological diagnosis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, but it does allow a diagnostic orientation as screening.

Conclusions: The latex agglutination test showed that it can be used for the rapid diagnosis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

Alejandro Mirabal Viel, Vanessa Pérez-del-Vallín, José Alejandro Rodríguez-Pérez, William Castillo-González, Christian Meijides-Mejías, Jairo Lumpuy-Castillo, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
240 lecturas
José Alejandro Rodríguez-Pérez, Alejandro Mirabal-Viel, Vanessa Pérez-del-Vallín, Christian Meijides-Mejías, William Castillo-González, Jairo Lumpuy-Castillo, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
138 lecturas
Christian Meijides-Mejías, William Castillo-González, José Alejandro Rodríguez-Pérez, Fabián Lombillo-Alfonso, Alejandro Mirabal-Viel, Vanessa Pérez-del-Vallín, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
167 lecturas
Ozone Therapy On Rats Submitted To Subtotal Nephrectomy: Role Of Interleukin 6 And Antioxidant System

Chronic renal failure (CRF) represents a world health problem. Ozone increases the endogenous antioxidant defense system, preserving the cell redox state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ozone/oxygen mixture in the renal function, morphology, and biochemical parameters, the rol of cytokine number 6 in an experimental model of CRF (subtotal nephrectomy). Ozone/oxygen mixture was applied daily, by rectal insufflation (0.5 mg/kg) for 15 sessions after the nephrectomy. Renal function was evaluated, as well as different biochemical parameters, at the beginning and at the end of the study(10 weeks). Renal plasmatic flow (RPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the urine excretion index, and the sodium and potassium excretions (as a measurement of tubular function) in the ozone group were similar to those in Sham group. Nevertheless, nephrectomized rats without ozone (positive control group) showed the lowest RPF, GFR, and urine excretion figures, as well as tubular function.. Serum creatinine values and protein excretion in 24 hours in the ozone group were decreased compared with nephrectomized rats, but were still higher than normal values. Histological study demonstrated that animals treated with ozone showed less number of lesions in comparison with nephrectomized rats. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6) was decrease in renal tissue after ozone by rectal insunnflation.  However, ozone/oxygen mixture induced a significant stimulation in the enzymatic activity of CAT, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as reduced glutathione in relation with Sham and positive control groups. In this animal model of CRF, ozone rectal administrations produced a delay in the advance of the disease, protecting the kidneys against vascular, hemorheological, and oxidative mechanisms. This behavior suggests ozone therapy has a protective effect on renal tissue by down regulation of the oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine shown in CRF.

Jose Luis Calunga Fernandez, Silvia Silvia Menéndez Cepero, Zullyt Zamora Rodríguez
472 lecturas
Modifications Of The Non-Linear Parameters Of The Heart Rate Variability Related To The Systematic Practice Of Physical Exercise

Introduction:  In recent  years,  the relationship  between  the systematic  practice  of physical  exercise,  cardiovascular  dynamics  and  the  functioning  of  the  autonomic nervous system has been recognized.

Objective: To determine the modifications that non-linear parameters undergo in the autonomic cardiovascular regulation of the heart rate variability with the systematic practice of physical exercise.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analytical study was conducted from February 2016 to August 2018. Population and sample: 36 individuals (Group 1: 18 high- performance baseball athletes; Group 2:  18 medical students). The  data  were collected  in  the  Biomedical  Basic  Sciences  Laboratory  at  Medical  school  1, University  of Santiago  de Cuba,  through  the 8-channel  PowerLab  polygraph,  and stored using the Kubios Software version 3.0.4 Premium.

Results: Statistically significant differences between means were found in heart rate values (p = 0.000); SD1 (p = 0.025); SD2/SD1 ratio (p = 0.007); sample entropy (p = 0.011); short-term fluctuations α 1 (p = 0.019); mean line length (p = 0.016); max line length (p = 0.001); recurrence rate (p = 0.034); determinism (p = 0.010) and Shannon entropy (p = 0.015). The parameters of SD1 (C = 0.906) and sample entropy (C = 0.712) were significantly associated with a heart rate ≤ 70 beats per minute.

Conclusions: With the systematic practice of physical exercise, the non-linear parameters of the autonomic cardiovascular regulation of the heart rate variability undergoes modifications that respond to a better adaptability of the autonomic nervous system, and to a greater capacity to regulate cardiovascular function.
Victor Ernesto González-Velázquez, Lázaro Ibraín Cobiellas-Carballo, Roxana María Rebustillo-Escobar, Walfrido Semanat-Gabely, David de Jesús Bueno-Revilla, Erislandis López-Galán, Miguel Enríquez Sánchez-Hechavarría, Salvador Escalante Batista
443 lecturas
Ileana Rodríguez Cabrera, Agustín Vicedo Tomey, Gil Obregón Ballester
161 lecturas
Eneida Barrios-Lamoth, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
147 lecturas
Serum Copper, Zinc, Calcium And Magnesium Levels In Mothers With Offspring Affected By Neural Tube Defects: A Case-Control Study

Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are important causes of infant mortality, which result from a complex interaction between genetics and environmental factors such as trace elements, which play and crucial role in the epigenetic regulation in the embryo fetal developmental program.

Objectives: To measure the maternal serum levels of copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium in mothers with offspring affected by NTDs, and to examine a possible relationship between the serum concentrations of these micronutrients and occurrence of NTDs.

Design: Case-controls study.

Subjects and Methods: Maternal serum blood samples were obtained from 72 healthy pregnant women and 36 mothers who had NTDs affected offspring, including those alive, stillbirths and elective pregnancy’ termination at Centro Provincial de Genetica in Villa Clara. Copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium levels in serum were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and were compared between the two groups of mothers.

Results: Serum zinc levels were determined to be significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group, while copper levels were significant elevated in the study group (all p values < .05). There was a negative correlation between serum zinc levels and serum copper levels. However, no association between calcium and magnesium serum levels and increased risk for the development of NTDs was observed.

Conclusions: High maternal serum levels of copper and lower level of zinc during pregnancy were associated with NTDs in offspring. If folic acid supplementation is given, additional zinc supplementation should be considered for the further decrease in the recurrence risk of NTDs.

Noel Taboada Lugo, Ángel Mollineda Trujillo, Manuela Herrera Martínez
243 lecturas
Curricular Strategy For Public Health And Environmental Training: The Environmental Dimension In The Basic Sciences Of The Medical Studies

Introduction: In the Medical Studies, environmental education becomes an imperative for the training of this type of professional, given the relationship between environmental problems and health problems. The Environmental Education for Sustainable Development, considered as the environmental dimension of comprehensive education, must be present in all the leading documents of the curriculum since it is considered a transverse axis of these, which is related to general objectives unattainable from a single subject and / or discipline, so it must be present in the medical training curriculum.

Objective: To propose a modality of inclusion of the Environmental Dimension, through the Curricular Strategy of Public Health and Environmental Training in different subjects of the Basic Sciences of the discipline known as Biological Basis of Medicine in medical studies mayor.

Methods: Documents of the study plan of the Medical Studies, the discipline known as Biological Bases of Medicine and important environmental aspects are analyzed, through different theoretical methods.

Results: The relationship between the environmental dimension and contents in different subjects of Basic Sciences of the discipline Biological Bases of Medicine is established.

Conclusions: We propose a modality of inclusion of the environmental dimension, through the Curricular Strategy of Public Health and Environmental Training, in contents of different subjects of Basic Sciences in Biological Bases of Medicine discipline within these studies.

Ileana Rodríguez Cabrera, Hilda Aguilera Pereira, Agustín Vicedo Tomey
162 lecturas
Molecular Identification Of Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes In Patients With Cervical Cancer

Background: The principal cause of cervical cancer is human papillomavirus. In Camaguey population, molecular study about human papillomavirus does not exist. The Polimerase Chain Reaction is a molecular procedure often used for medical diagnostic; it allow to confirm the human papillomavirus DNA in the total DNA purified of cervical cancer patients sample.

Objetive: The first time demonstration the human papillomavirus circulating in the cancer cervical patients of Camaguey population, Cuban.

Methods: The analytic study was carried out with 22 patients of the pathology consult of Genecology hospital of Camaguey. The identification and characterization of human papillomavirus genotype was carried out through restriction fragment lenght polymorphic procedure.

Results: The mean age was 52.3 years and the more frequency was the 50-59 age group in 50% of the women. Were studied by cytology only 10 women and the false negative of the cytology was of 80%. The 63.3 percent of patients showed exophytic lesion, 4.5 percent endophytic lesion and 3.8 percent another lesion. Were studied by cytology only 10 women of the total participants and the false negatives were of 80%. The 16 and 31 was the circulation genotypes in the Camaguey population and the 16 genotype was the most frequently.

Conclusions: This is the first report of molecular study of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer patients on Camaguey, Cuban. Present research and the other research of Cuban authors is an important contribution to therapeutic and prevent vaccine more effective in the solution anticipate for the cervical cancer in Cuban.

Juan Carlos Piña Napal, Gustavo Crespo Campos, Rafael Fando Calzado, Yaimara Valdés Silva
308 lecturas
Inflammation Modulation With Methanol Zea Mays Cob Husk On An Experimental Model In Albino Rats

Background: Several parts of Zea mays (maize) have been used for the treatment of several ailments including inflammatory conditions.

Objective: to evaluate the modulatory effect on carrageenan-induced inflammation of the methanol extract of Zea mays cob husk in Albino rats.

Methods: 9.45% maize cob husks methanol extract was obtained by soxhlet extraction and the phytochemical screening was done. The carrageenan-induced paw edema model of acute inflammation was carried out to 30 Albino rats which were divided into five groups, two controls (negative and positive) and three experimental. A single oral methanol extract (100, 200 or 400mg/Kg) were administered to the experimental groups. Indomethacin 10mg/Kg was used as positive control. The paw volume up to the tribiotural articulation was measured at 0, 1, 3 and 6th hours. Inflammation was expressed as an increase in paw volume due to carrageenan injection and the percentage inhibition produced by the extracts was calculated to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. Acute toxicity study was conducted. ANOVA test was applied and P value less than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: saponins, tannins and polyphenols were present in the plant extract. Doses below 5000mg/Kg were considered safe. Significant anti-inflammatory activity was shown at 400mg/Kg after sixth hours.

Conclusions: The anti-inflammatory effect of Zea mays cob husk extract may be attributed to the presence of saponins, tannins and polyphenols. Percentage inhibition of inflammation by the extracts showed dose and time dependence. The anti-inflammatory effect was found significant for safe concentrations of the plant extract.

Genny Dominguez Montero, Thadeus Judah Mpewo, Miriela Betancourt Valladares, José Luis Cadenas Freixas, Marjories Mirabal Nápoles
243 lecturas
A Curriculum For Master Of Science In Physiology Of Mbarara University Of Science And Technology In UgandaNew regulations together with the development of science and teaching demanded to write a curriculum for postgraduate training in Physiology in Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST). Objective: to design a Curriculum for Master of Science in Physiology at MUST. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted during one year under the guidance of the Curriculum Committee. The process was organized in three major phases: identification of needs and analysis of relevant documents; curriculum writing; assessment, review and submission. Some accomplished tasks included analysis of regulations, guidelines and other postgraduate curricula; identification of the learning needs and mandatory courses; designing of courses and other components, meetings, discussions and workshops; submissions and internal review. Relevant theoretical and empirical methods included analysis and synthesis; interviews; scientific observation; documents and bibliography review and experts consulting. This curriculum review process allowed to incorporate a new side to the previous programme: the teaching skills and aspects of Pathophysiology. Results: The curriculum was designed, presented, reviewed and approved to resume the training by the Department of Physiology, MUST and the first group of postgraduates started it in August 2016. Conclusions: the curriculum for Master of Science in Physiology, produced in less than one year of collective and intense work is being followed to train postgraduates at MUST.  Without this curriculum, the training of Physiologists at MUST was not going to be possible despite the needs of the University and the region.
Miriela Betancourt Valladares, Kasiisi Balaam, Rosemary Namayanja, Kiguli James Mukasa, José Luis Cadenas Freixas, Genny Dominguez Montero, Marjories Mirabal Nápoles, José Enrique Alfonso Manzanet
211 lecturas
Molecular And Epidemiological Characterization Of SMN Genes In Cuban Patients With Spinal Muscular AtrophySpinal Muscular Atrophy (AME) is a neuromuscular disease of autosomal recessive inheritance with variable expressivity, characterized by degeneration and loss of the anterior horn neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem, resulting in progressive symmetric muscle weakness. The main cause of this disease is due to homozygous mutations in the SMN1 gene. The aim of the current study was to characterize molecularly the SMN genotypes in Cuban patients affected with Spinal Muscular Atrophy by PCR of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), establishing their association with molecular and biostatistical techniques, with gender, age and skin color.This study has two main lines of work: the genotypic characterization by the detection of homozygous deletions of SMN1 and SMN2 by PCR-RFLP and the establishment of the relationship with the clinical phenotype, demographic or ethnic characteristics using statistical tests.The proportion of patients by provinces, type of SMA, sex and skin color was calculated. 74% of the patients presented homozygous deletion of SMN1 and 2, 56% had deletion of SMN2. In this study, cases with SMA were confirmed by molecular study, finding that the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics coincided with the data reported in the medical literature. 74% of the patients who fulfilled the clinical and electrophysiological criteria presented homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN1 gene, which represents the mutation most frequently observed in patients with SMA. The distribution showed that the highest percentage of patients are concentrated in the western provinces of Cuba, especially in Havana, where the greatest number of specialized medical services are found where AME patients are treated and the diagnosis is made. The results of this research seek to improve the genetic counseling of individuals carrying mutant SMN genes in order to improve quality of life by optimizing the diagnosis, prognosis and clinical management of these patients.
Fabián Lombillo, Mariana Pita Rodríguez
226 lecturas
Alexander Ariel Padrón González, Jairo Lumpuy-Castillo, José Alejandro Rodríguez-Pérez, Vanesa Pérez-Vallín, Alejandro Mirabal-Viel, William Castillo-González, Alberto Juan Dorta-Contreras
339 lecturas
Jorge Ramón Blanco-Carmona, William Quintero-Pérez, Alexander Ariel Padrón González, Maricarmen González-Costa, Meralys Iglesias
170 lecturas
Myeloperoxidase Activity, Lipid Profile And Thyroid Function In Patients Who Suffer From Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer´s disease increases its global incidence and prevalence, the WHO includes the disease among the main problems in public health today. Cuba is not apart from this reality. Biochemical markers pretends to enhance its early diagnosis. Objective: to determine myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), lipid profile and thyroid function, in patients who suffer from Alzheimer´s disease. Methods: it was a case and control analytic observational study, in patients from the Santa Clara polyclinic. The MPO activity, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, total triglycerides, VLDL, total T3 and T4, and TSH were determined in serum of both groups. Results: no association was found between MPO activity and the presence of the disease (p = 0.348).There was an almost absolute predominance of low levels of HDL-c, more evident in cases (0.43mmol/L), the levels of T3 tended to be close to the lower limit of the physiological range (1.46nmol/L), a relevant finding was a general presence of subclinical hypothyroidism (23.75 %), with no significant differences between groups. Conclusions: The Alzheimer´s disease keeps showing its increasing with age and it is more common in females. High levels of LDL-c and low of HDL-c are frequent in the elderly. Higher levels of HDL-c and T3, this last one into the physiological range, act as protectors against the disease. The subclinical hypothyroidism is present and remains hidden in many of the elder with Alzheimer or not. In a high number of patients, coexist Alzheimer´s disease and some diseases from the metabolic syndrome, as dyslipidemias.

Rafael Marcel Ranzola, Yania Ramos Rodríguez, Julio Junco Cuesta, Ariel Pérez Truffin, Jorge Cabrera Llano
260 lecturas
Study Antiulcer And Possible Gastroprotective Mechanisms Of Musa Pulp ABB SPP

The objective of this work was to evaluate in a model of chronic ulcer the antiulcer effect and the possible mechanisms by which this fruit produces gastroprotection. The pulp of the green fruit was sliced, dried at 50 oC, ground and sieved. Ninety Male Wistar rats of 190 ± 10 g were used.   The antiulcer effect of pulp was performed with the chronic model of ulcer by acetic acid, used 5 groups of 8 animal, the suspension of the pulp at 125; 250; 500 mg / kg BW were applied 72 hours after inducing the ulcer for 7 days. For the determination of the mechanisms, also 5 groups of 10 animal were used, the banana pulp was supplied in a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg / kg of BW, for three days, before inducing the ulcers with indomethacin, the activity of the myeloperoxidase, the superoxide dismutase and the levels of prostaglandins in the gastric mucosa were determined. Treatment with the suspensions of the pulp in the chronic ulcer model reduced in a very highly significant way the damaged area in all the treated groups and this reduction was greater than that produced by ranitidine; there was a significant decrease in myeloperoxidase only with the highest dose tested and a significant increase of superoxide dismutase and prostaglandins level with all the doses used. We conclude that the pulp preparations provoked an intense anti-ulcer. The mechanism of gastroprotective action was mediated by an antioxidant effect and mucosal protection.

María de los Angeles Boffill Cárdenas, María José Martín Calero, Arianna Valido Díaz, Carmen Garrido Arce
208 lecturas
Modifications Of The Non-Linear Parameters Of The Heart Rate Variability Related To The Mental Arithmetic Test

Introduction: The autonomic nervous system has been related to an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output in situations of stress.

Objective: To determine the modifications that the non-linear parameters undergo in the autonomic cardiovascular regulation of the heart rate variability subjected to mental stress through the mental arithmetic test.

Material and Method: A non-observational quasi-experimental study of before-after type without control group was conductedin  the  Biomedical  Basic  Sciences  Laboratory  at  Medical  school  1, University  of Santiago  de Cuba, from March 2016 to August 2018. A group of 10 Medical Students constituted the population and sample.

Results: Statistically significant differences between means were found in Heart rate values (p = 0.000), SD1 (p = 0.002), SD2/SD1rate (p = 0.000), Sample Entropy (p = 0.026), Short-term fluctuations α 1 (p = 0.000), CorrelationDimension (p = 0.020), Max line length (p = 0.017), Recurrence rate (p = 0.007), Determinism (p = 0.003), Multiscale Entropy minimum(p = 0.001), Multiscale Entropy maximum(p = 0.000) and MultiscaleEntropyAverage (p = 0.001).

Conclusions: The non-linear parameters in the cardiovascular autonomic regulation of Heart rate, SD1, SD2/SD1 rate, Sample Entropy, Short-term fluctuations α 1, Correlation Dimension, Max line length, Recurrence rate, Determinism, Multiscale Entropy Minimum, Multiscale Entropy Maximum and Multiscale Entropy Average experienced variations in patients subjected to mental stress through the arithmetic calculation test.

Elys María Pedraza-Rodríguez, Carlos Rafael Almira-Gómez, Sergio Cortina Reyna, David de Jesús Bueno-Revilla, Erislandis López-Galán, Miguel Enrique Sánchez-Hechavarría
549 lecturas
Lianne Alicia Chang Arraño, Iván Delgado Suárez, Odalis Querts Méndez, Nelsa Sagaró del Campo
134 lecturas
Transfusion Medicine Competency And The Fundaments For Its Implementation In Anesthesiology And Reanimation

A way to overcome the blood transfusion disadvantages is determining and developing transfusion competencies. The research aims were to identify the elements of transfusion medicine competency and to describe the fundaments for its implementation in the specialty of Anesthesiology and Reanimation. Transfusion competencies include, among others, knowledge of the risks of blood-borne infections, safe prescription of blood products, identification of transfusion reactions, and competently perform and teach undergraduates the procedure of intravenous infusion of blood and blood products. It also includes knowing and updating on ethical, scientific and legal issues of blood components transfusion. In Anesthesiology and Reanimation, transfusion medicine competency also involves demonstration of knowledge, abilities and values for the preoperative preparation of the patients with anemia, bleeding risk and other hematological illnesses, for the use of pharmacological and non pharmacological alternatives, as well as for blood components’ economy. Being competent in transfusion medicine in this specialty implies an important and substantial reduction of the general morbidity-mortality and particularly that associated with transfusion complications, and requires the capacity of mobilize the set of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values in a comprehensive and pertinent way in order to transfuse less and better, with more safety and less expenditures.

Neyda Frenandez Franch, Ubaldo Roberto Torres Romo, Arturo Teodoro Menéndez Cabezas, Sarah Estrella López Lazo, Zaily Fuentes Díaz, Oscar Liza Hernández
191 lecturas
Amanda Rodríguez Manso, Maricarmen González-Costa, Alexander Ariel Padrón González
163 lecturas
Hemodynamics Patterns At Rest And During Isometric Sustained Weight Test In Normorreactive, Hyperreactive And With Hypertensive Response Young People: Gender Differences

Introduction: a number of adjustments of the cardiovascular system are required during isometric exercise; variations in the components involved in young people blood pressure response result controversial.

Objective: to determine the difference between gender at baseline hemodynamic parameters and during isometric Sustained Weight Test in normorreactive, hyperreactive and with hypertensive response young people.

Methods: sample was constituted by 97 young people of both genders, 41 males and 56 females, with an average age of 19±1,40 years, whom was applied hemodynamic monitoring in supine decubitus position with non-invasive by impedance cardiography at rest and while the sustained weight test was performed.

Results: significantly superior values of heart rate and cardiac index were obtained in normorreactive women in basal conditions, and at the exercise. Normorreactive male had significantly higher systemic vascular resistance index than females in both conditions and the hypertensive response group had differences only in the exercise. Women achieved higher heart rate increments than men during isometric exercise. Systemic vascular resistance index were increased in all groups of both genders, mainly in normorreactive men.

Conclusions: at baseline, women had higher values of hemodynamic variables related to cardiac activity and men related to vascular tone. Differences between both genders remained during isometric exercise, and the increased blood pressure was mainly due to the increase of systemic vascular resistance.

Alexis Rodríguez Pena, Otmara Guirado Blanco, Héctor Jesús González Paz, Marianela Ballesteros Hernández
305 lecturas
Oxidative Imbalance And Risk Factors Involved In Premalignant And Malignant Lesions Of The Uterine Cervix

Objetive: to determine the indicators of oxidative stress and risk factors in patients with premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

Methods: A total of 150 women were studied: 40 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 40 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 40 with stage IIB squamous cell carcinoma and 30 with negative cytology taken as a control, from the Gynecology Service of the “Chiqui Gómez” Polyclinic, and Oncology Service “Celestino Hernández” Hospital of Santa Clara, aged between 19 and 70. The information on the risk factors was obtained through an individualized interview, and oxidative stress indicators were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. The comparison and association between groups was carried out with the support of the statistical program SPSS.

Results: The levels of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in both groups of squamous intraepithelial lesion, glutathione decreased significantly in the three groups of lesions, while malonildialdehyde significantly increased in the same groups with respect to the control. The risk factors with the highest incidence in the affected women were early sexual contact, the number of sexual partners, the use of oral contraceptives, exposure to environmental toxins and the habit of smoking.

Conclusions: There is an oxidative imbalance in the cases due to the decrease of the antioxidant enzymatic system, where the reduced levels of glutathione contribute to the increase of the lipid peroxidation. Risk factors may influence exposure to the papilloma virus and lead to the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in the cervix.

Danay Heredia-Ruiz, Manuela Herrera Martínez, Douglas Fernández Caraballo, Lázara Gladys López Ocampo, Luis Alfredo Estévez Cobo, Sergio Santana Rodríguez, Emilio González Rodríguez
307 lecturas
Studies Of Genetic Epidemiology About Phenotype With Complex Determination In The Context Of A Biomedical Basic Sciences Doctoral Program

Objective: To identify a core set of research procedures for genetic epidemiology that need to be learnt to obtain a scientific degree in subjects related to basic biomedical sciences.

Methods: We discuss the results of six research projects in the area of genetic epidemiology about complex phenotypes. We show in the studied phenotypes the higher prevalence in relatives compared to the general population, the higher risk among first-degree relatives of affected individuals, and the segregation mode of each phenotype. Meanwhile, to show the influence of environmental factors and various analysis of gene-environment interaction using different models. Finally, we discuss the common research procedures followed during these studies.

Results: research studies in the subject of genetic epidemiology can be divided into three broad categories: (1) those that aim at describing the distribution of a disease or a determinant at the level of a population of interest (familiar hereditary angioedema, reproductive failure); (2) those that attempt to investigate a potential aetiological link between one or more specific determinants and a disease of interest (congenital birth defects, cervix cancer, and longevity) and (3) those aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention applied to groups of individuals in the population (hypoplasia foetal thymus).

Conclusions: We have identified, a set of theoretical topics as well as study techniques and methodologies for the approach of research projects in genetic epidemiology, could be considered as the general and specific bases for postgraduate teaching in relation to obtaining a doctorate in basic biomedical sciences in our University and could be useful to other Universities of similar contexts.

Manuela Herrera Martinez, Douglas Fernández-Caraballo, Danay Heredia-Ruiz, Maria Elena de la Torre-Santos, Noel Taboada-Lugo, Lay Salazar-Torres, Lorna González-Herrera
238 lecturas
Oxidative Stress-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction Contributes To Cardiovascular Disease

Objective: Oxidative stress is supposed to be involved in cardiovascular pathology through vascular cell damage. Identification of oxidative stress markers can represent a method for early diagnosis of vascular dysfunction. Biomolecular mechanisms of the vascular damage remain partially understood.

Material and Methods: In vitro and ex vivo studies were performed in order to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the potential preventive action of antioxidant agents against activation, proliferation and/or apoptosis of human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. The expression and activity of oxidative stress enzymes, reactive oxygen species and O2- radicals, including NADPH oxidase isoforms were evaluated, as well as leukocyte adhesion assay and the expression of cell adhesion molecules. In addition, histological and immunohistochemical analysis of human aorta tissue were performed.

Results: We detected higher levels of oxidative stress markers during endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. In addition, oxidative stress was involved in the modulation of cell proliferation, vascular smooth cell phenotype, and cell apoptosis. Vascular and endothelial dysfunction by oxidative stress was mediated by NADPH oxidase 4 activity. The treatment with antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid, NAC and NADPH oxidase 4 specific inhibitors prevented oxidative stress-induced vascular and endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that oxidative stress is pivotal in vascular and endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, our data provide additional information about the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The identification of those oxidative stress markers in vascular cells will allow an early diagnosis and an appropriate antioxidant therapeutic approach.


Maria Giovanna Scioli, Federico D'Amico, Roger Rodríguez Guzmán, Ela María Céspedes Miranda, Augusto Orlandi
562 lecturas
Douglas Fernández-Caraballo, Manuela Herrera Martínez, Danay Heredia Ruiz, Sonia Chaviano Machado, Emilio González Rodríguez
175 lecturas
Iván Delgado Suárez, Arquímedes Montoya Pedrón, Lianne Alicia Chang Arraño
258 lecturas
Electrocardiographic Modifications In Hypertensive Patients Without Associated Diseases

Introduction: High Blood Pressure is considered a devastating disease due to its several complications, which do not manifest until there is severe damage established, reason why the electrocardiogram can be a tool easily accessible in clinical practice to detect cardiac complications that may happen in the future allowing us to act early in their treatment.
Objective: Identify the electrocardiographic modifications present in hypertensive patients without associated diseases.

Methods: An analytical observational study of case-control in hypertensive patients without associated diseases or supposedly healthy patients, belonging to the Family Medical Office # 17.30, of the "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" Polyclinic; Santa Clara municipality was carried out in the period from November 2017 to February 2018.

Results: Maximum P-wave mean was significantly higher in the case group (56.43 ms vs 35 ms control group, p= 0,000), behaving similarly when comparing P-wave dispersion in both groups (56, 43 ± 19, 48 ms vs 35, 00 ± 16, 98 p=0,001). Maximum corrected QT interval showed significant differences between both groups (471, 75 ±32, 04 ms vs 448, 36 ±40, 84 ms, p= 0,020), QT dispersion did not showed significant differences. The maximum JT segment and its dispersion did not showed to be significantly different.

Conclusions: P wave dispersion, maximum P wave, maximum QRS, its dispersion and the maximum QT interval showed significant differences between both groups; those results were findings on hypertensive patients group. On this sample the increase QT intervals could be dependent on QRS but not on the JT interval.

Lissett Ferrer-Orozco, Yoandri Orozco-Martínez, Jesús Ignacio Medina-Morales, Beatriz Isabel Orozco-Pérez de Prado, Calixto Emanuel Orozco-Pérez de Prado, Rosa María Hernández-Maldonado, Elibet Chávez-González
225 lecturas
Modifications Associated To O Vernutrition Evidenced During And After Physical E Fort, Havana

Introduction: Obesity, "epidemic of the XXI century", affects the cardiovascular system, whose diseases are among the leading causes of morbimortality in most developed countries, as well as in some developing nations such as Cuba, where mortality rate of cardiovascular causes reached 228.2 every 100000 inhabitants in 2018.

Classification: observational of prevalence, descriptive-correlational; transversal; and applied.

Objective: To describe functional cardiac modifications associated with overnutrition and expressed during and after physical effort, Havana, Cuba.

Population: 102 subjects who attended said laboratory with to have a periodical health follow-up from January 2017 to April 2018, of 30-70 years of age, without personal history of ischemic heart disease or contraindications to perform an Exercise Stress Test, and in whose attention the researchers participated.

Method: Anamnesis, physical exam, bioimpedance and exercise stress test. The subjects were classified according to body fat percentage: groups N (normal), H (high) and V (very high).

Results: 83 subjects completed the study, predominating women and subjects of 50-59 years of age. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors were overnutrition, sedentary lifestyle and hypertension. Functional capacity was diminished with the increase in body fat percentage (BFP). In subjects of group N there was no ST-segment deviation. 18 subjects presented arrhythmia during and after the exercise, among them 88,2% had a BFP higher than normal; the most frequent arrhythmias were sinus tachycardia and ventricular extrasystole.

Conclusions: overnutrition is associated with functional cardiac modifications that imply an increase of cardiovascular risk, with decreased exercise tolerance and augmented incidence of ischemia and cardiac arrhythmias.

Claudia Ines Lopez de Villavicencio Hernández, Mayppe González Jardines, Ileana Cabrera Rojo
204 lecturas
Methodological And Didactic Conception In Morphophysiology Improves Cognitive Ability

Introduction: A current purpose of the medical education is to achieve the prominence of the biomedical subjects in the preparation of the doctors. The suitable motivation is the most adapted way to reach it. In Cuba, the medical teaching has assumed changes with marked incidence in the biomedical subjects. The morphophysiology emerged to integrate with didactic ends the morphological and physiological contents. What created disjunctives about the methods and means for the teaching morphological contents, in front of the tendency to substitute the traditional forms by computer images. It was a problem to resolve by means of the educational search work and methodological scientist.   

Objective:  This work has the aim to value the impact of pedagogical didactic – actions implemented in medicine students of first year to develop cognitive ability in profit of the process of education learning.

Methods: The universe was the learning results of the medicine students and the courses among 2008 and 2013 constituted the sample. By random way were taken in each course experimental and control groups. In the first was stimulated the motivation with the method basic on problem, the employment of the optical microscope, histological slides and anatomical pieces. The averages of the experimental groups and controls was compared, in the same manner was compared with total and the accumulated average.

Results: The averages of the experimental groups resulted upper to the of the groups control and to the academic average accumulated. Of this way verified the hypothesis posed that the actions implemented in the methodological didactic conception based in the method basic on problem resulted favourable for the development of the cognitive ability of the students.

Conclusions: The method basic on problem link with means of traditional education in the morphological sciences, combining them properly with the new means of digitalized images stimulates the motivation, favours the development of cognitive ability and increases the academic results.

Jorge Eduardo Abreu Ugarte, A. Saldaña Bernabeu, O. E. Benavides Socarras, M. A. Cruz García
234 lecturas
Correlation Among The Criterion Of The Professor And The Academic Results In Molecular Biology

Introduction: The methodological work of the department of morfofisiología loans special attention to the quality of the educational process. One of the purposes is the suitable employment of the valued criterion of the professor like a focus of the efficiency of the process, that it is useful to his time also for the prediction of the educational results, in the individual and collective.

Objective:The present work studies the correlation of the valued criterion of the professor with the achievement of the aims of the subjects, expressed this last by the educational results obtained in the ordinary examination. It was studied its chronological behavior in the period of five years

Material and Methods: A matrix of correlation was created. We determined the coefficient of Spearman. Some factors that could influence in its objectivity predict were also identified by the study.

Results:The review of the registers of methodological meetings, open classes and newspapers of classes allowed us to identify some factors that could act on the valued criterion of the professor. They can improve the objectivity of the correlation between this criterion and the academic achieving at the final examination in the subject of molecular biology in the students of first year on medicine career.

Conclusions: To attention and systematic monitory of the individual educational evolution and collective in the methodological work of the subject and in the department, attains to increase the efficiency of the valued criterion of the professor and its correlation with the ends academic results. The results constitute an educational innovation for the methodological work in the subjects that integrate the Biological Bases of the Medicine.

Jorge Eduardo Abreu Ugarte, A. Saldaña Bernabeu, O. E. Benavides Socarras, M. A. Cruz García
183 lecturas
Maria Elena de la Torre Santos, Manuela Herrera Martinez, Ana Esther Algora Hernandez, Gisela Noche Gonzalez, Arlan Machado Rojas, Madeivy Paz Garcia, Diley Rodriguez Conde, Estrella Reyes Hernandez, Carolina Machado de la Torre, Daniel Gonzalez Benitez
279 lecturas
Phisiopatology of epilepsy: genetics and environment

Introduction: Epilepsy is a group of chronic neurological syndromes derived from alterations in brain functions that present with recurrent paroxysmal crises triggered by abnormal electrical discharges.
Objective: describe the updated knowledge related to the genetic bases of the phisiophatology of epilepsy. Material and method: A bibliography revision was made .
Methods: analysis-synthesis, induction-decuction, historic-logic were used. Forty- three bibliographic references available at the virtual library of health.
Results: the mechanisms which causes electric shocks were described: a decrease of gabaergic inhibitor mechanisms, an increase of stimulating mechanisms mediated by aspartic and glutamic acid and alteration of the transmembrane conduction of sodium and calcium ions. Genes implicated in the neural ionic canal of sodium, potasium, chlorine, calcium(SCN1A, SCN1B, SNC2A, KCNQ2,KCNQ3, CLCN2, CACNA1H), with the receptors for the acetilcoline and GABA neurotransmitter: CHRNA4 and CHRNB2. The gen GRIA3 related to the eye-brain-renal syndrom or Lowe Syndrome. From the epigenetic mechanisms the methylation of DNA and the micro RNA in the epileptgenesis. The pharmacological effectivity according to the neurotrasmitter glutamic(stimulating): topiramate ,talampanel, ketamin; GABA(inhibitor) direct action: benzodiazepines (diazepam, clobazam) and barbiturates(phenobarbital, loreclezol,carisbamate); drugs with indirect action on GABA: acido valproico, tiagabina,vigabatrina (increase of the gabaergig tone by means of the irreversible and suicide inactivation of the enzyme responsable for the metabolism of GABA). Other drugs are: gabapentin, losigamona.
Conclusions: It is considered that the genetic bases of the phisiophatology of epilpsy are an important element to understand it is ethiophatogenic, new therapeutic approaches and for the discovery of new drugs.

Gretel Laura Rodríguez Orive, Sergio Antonio Cruz Hechavarria, Iliana Machado Reyes
457 lecturas
Causality: autoimmunity and cancer

Introduction: The effectors of autoimmune diseases are the mechanisms of hypersensitivity. These processes also appear in cancer, which can give rise to autoinflammation.
Objective: To describe the causality between autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Methods: A literature review was performed using the Google Scholar and articles freely available on the basis of PubMed and Scielo January 2014 to February 2018. Data search terms were used as descriptors of the DeCS and MeSH.

Development: Autoimmune diseases are chronic inflammatory processes caused by failures in tolerance. The mechanisms and specific processes that initiate the damage are still unknown. The activity of inflammatory cells and soluble pro-inflammatory mediators leads to a greater recruitment of endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis. Persistent inflammation (chronic or low grade) can often promote tumor development, tumor progression and invasion. In the tumor environment there is release of molecular patterns associated with damage (DAMPs), which mimic a sterile lesion and recruit cells of innate immunity, which can promote an inflammatory environment and cause an autoimmune phenomenon.
Conclusions: Inflammatory responses can improve tumor growth and progression. Cancer can develop self-immunity or arise secondary to the genetic and epigenetic changes of autoinflammation. The causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, they perpetuate themselves and are the product of inflammatory processes.

Maricarmen González Costa, Alexander Ariel Padrón-González
253 lecturas
Alexander Ariel Padrón González, Edel Jiménez-Hernández, Oliver Pérez, Miriam Lastre
282 lecturas


Jaime Patricio Chávez Hernández, José Alfredo Sánchez Anilema, Danilo Ortiz Fernández, Iván Giovanny Bonifaz Arias, Dennys Germán Palacios Valdiviezo, Rodrigo Roberto Santillán Obregón
438 lecturas