Causality: autoimmunity and cancer

Maricarmen González Costa, Alexander Ariel Padrón-González

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Introduction: The effectors of autoimmune diseases are the mechanisms of hypersensitivity. These processes also appear in cancer, which can give rise to autoinflammation.
Objective: To describe the causality between autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Methods: A literature review was performed using the Google Scholar and articles freely available on the basis of PubMed and Scielo January 2014 to February 2018. Data search terms were used as descriptors of the DeCS and MeSH.

Development: Autoimmune diseases are chronic inflammatory processes caused by failures in tolerance. The mechanisms and specific processes that initiate the damage are still unknown. The activity of inflammatory cells and soluble pro-inflammatory mediators leads to a greater recruitment of endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis. Persistent inflammation (chronic or low grade) can often promote tumor development, tumor progression and invasion. In the tumor environment there is release of molecular patterns associated with damage (DAMPs), which mimic a sterile lesion and recruit cells of innate immunity, which can promote an inflammatory environment and cause an autoimmune phenomenon.
Conclusions: Inflammatory responses can improve tumor growth and progression. Cancer can develop self-immunity or arise secondary to the genetic and epigenetic changes of autoinflammation. The causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, they perpetuate themselves and are the product of inflammatory processes.

Palabras clave

autoimmunity; cancer; inflammation; autoimmune diseases.

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