Actividad física y su relación con el sistema inmune

Alex Omar Franco Lacato

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Introducción: El ejercicio mejora muchos aspectos de la salud humana, incluso, regula el sistema inmune. Se ha comprobado que el ejercicio moderado y regular ejerce efectos antiinflamatorios. Al mejorar las funciones inmunitarias, reduce la incidencia de enfermedades no transmisibles y la susceptibilidad a infecciones virales.

Objetivo: Describir los efectos de la actividad física sobre el sistema inmune innato y adaptativo.

Método: Para este manuscrito se usó la base de datos PubMed y Google Académico. Se utilizaron los términos “ejercicios físicos”, “inmunidad”, “macrófago”, “neutrófilos”, “linfocitos” e “inmunoglobulinas”, según el descriptor de Ciencias de la Salud. Se incluyeron 53 artículos en la revisión.

Conclusiones: El ejercicio agudo (intensidad moderada a vigorosa, menos de 150 min) se considera un inmunoestimulante porque mejora la actividad antimicrobicida de los macrófagos e incrementa la síntesis de citocinas antiinflamatorias. Además, favorece el tráfico de neutrófilos, células NK, células T citotóxicas y células B inmaduras.

Palabras clave

ejercicios físicos; inmunidad; macrófago; neutrófilos; linfocitos; inmunoglobulinas.


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